princ●iple of a very feeble

strategy seems● to have been to threaten (or protect●) London, and on the Parliam▓en

t side to keep free for use the road f●rom London to the West. P

r●actically, as in the Wars of the Roses, the poli▓tical situation was this.The north part o▓f the Midlands and the west favoured the Roya▓lists, the east and south the ●Parliamentarians.But in both cases there wer▓e numerous centres of disaffection in● each ar

ea, and the commercial spirit of t▓he great towns and seaports in the s▓outh and east

was hostile to th●e king. Speaking generally, too, th▓e nobles

and gentry favoured th▓e royal cause, the middle classes that of ▓the Pa

rliament; though of course there

were▓ many exceptions on both sides.T●he fashionable, worldly, and gay▓ were with Ch

arles, the serious-minded, au▓stere, and visionar

y with the Parli●ament.But there was more than this: even

t●he “peo


ple” found a recruiti●ng

ground, f

or London trained▓ ba

nds and peaceful traders d

▓onned bu

ff and bandolier to fi


ght in the nati▓onal cause.As at Barnet, tho●ugh now much more so, the comme▓rcial class stood side by side wit●h that which deemed itself, by birth and ▓education, more military. The gradual intro▓duction of the supply train had introduced the e●lements of strategy, though the study w●as still in its infa



strategical ●objectives were rather more d▓istinct, but even now there i

s ●little trace of a connected serious strategic ●plan

.The isolated armies did not yet42 unit▓e

to a definite strategic end; the plan

of ●campaign was much the same as b▓efore, though a little le


ss so▓.The king assembled an army at X, the Parliamen▓t formed one at Y to beat it.The m▓ain difference

is, that in the War▓s of the Roses defeat generally mean▓t dispersion, in this Civil War● it meant more or

less retreat to re-form.The▓ art of war was growing up, that was all. ● Briefly speaking, the only no

teworthy point▓s of military interest are these w●hich follow; as the most instructive▓ tactical example

is that of the ba▓ttle of Naseby. The early campaign▓s merely tell the usual tale of di▓sconnected s

kirmishes and resultless battles.▓Nominally the Parliament guarded th▓e capital, their opponents wanted to s

eize it▓.But they rarely tried, and never seriousl▓y.In 1643, when Essex was retreat▓ing from the relie

f of Gloucester, he was inte●rcepted by the king at Newbury, where strategi●cally and tactically the royal f